Hello everyone in this article will talk about Mucormycosis which is a fungal disease prevalence in immunocompromised individuals such as people who are recovering from covid-19 for people who are suffering from cancer or HIV so Mucormycosis is a fungal disease and has taken the headline of news these days.
it has created a huge furi in everybody is mind so let’s try to understand
- what is mucormycosis?
- what is the biological basis of this infection?
- how we can prevent the infection?
- what is the possible treatment of this?
so stay tuned with us to the end of this Article.
What is black fungus infection?
Mucormycosis (Black Fungus) which was previously known as I go my cost is it serious but rare fungal infection. which is caused by a group of mole known as mucor myocytes is group encompasses Rhizopus species and mucor species which roughly look like this shows in the image below. they have a characteristic Shape.
now these moles live out throughout the environment they are almost everywhere we would learn in a specific region with their present or where they are abundant but the key picture which is coming out from the news headlines is it is creating a huge swelling and inflammation near the ocular area and many people are losing their vision due to these kinds of infection.
so lets try to understand the pathophysiology of this disease.
so first lets talk how does this infection happen and where do you find this fungus.
Where Black Fungus Found
now when you passing throw this area some of the spores you might accidentally unknowingly you might have been killed them.
now in normal situation it’s not a big deal our body knows how to fight against it but it’s a big deal for people who are immunocompromised and in a moment it would be clear before that let me tell you these fungal infection can happen via several routes.
mucormycosis transmission method
- one of the common roots is entry via inhalation weather sports enter our lungs via our Airways
- there could be also in three-point via an injury site let’s say you have engineering in your hand and these fungus spores might have entered your system via that.
- or it could be taken inside with food so there could be also get associated entry point.
Classification of mucormycosis(Black Fungus)
now any fungal disease can be classified based on the following criteria and it’s important to understand the several classes of mucormycosis infection as well.
- so based on the site of infection we can classify them as superficial cutaneous, subcutaneous deep, and systemic.
- now based on the root of the accusation they could be exogenous vs endogenous
- based on virulence they could be primary or opportunistic so this different classification mode.
now let me tell you Mucormycosis infection is concerned there are rhinocerebral mucormycosis which generally affect the Sinus and the brain
whose symptoms include one sided facial swelling headache nasal congestion jaw pain maybe fever etc.
what are the symptoms of mucormycosis?
now phagocytosis by neutrophils is one of the strong defense responses against the fungi and another strong immune response against them.
the fungi are orchestrated by the Th1 subtype which produces interferon-gamma which is a cytokine and that is how it tries to cope up with the fungal infection.
now interferon-gamma activates macrophages increase their phagocytotic capability and this is how our body fights back.
now, the Th1 cell one of us subtype of the T helper cell which is specialized for fighting against fungal infections. now, these th17 cells secrete one particular molecule which is known as IL-17 that is crucial to fight fungal infections.
it is found that when there is a fungal infection these the cells get differentiated to this specific subtype and this happens via specific cytokine signaling
but where does the cytokine come from
these cytokines come from or secreted by dendritic cell or macrophages when dendritic cell and macrophage sends the sense the presence of fungus-like mucous micro sims they send a signal to these Th cells and the push them to differentiated or to become this specific subtype which can combat these fungal infections but all of these mechanism fails or these mechanisms are severely compromised in patients which are undergoing AIDS, HIV is recovering from Covid-19 whose immunity is very weak so I mean these increases the chances of having secondary fungal infection
all fungi are harmful true or false
now let’s understand that all of these fungus species that we talked about them are not bad after watching this article if you think all of this fungus is bad it’s not true.
there millions of fungus species and about 400 to 500 are potential disease-causing agents so all of them are not bad indeed we eat nice mushrooms in our diet which is also very beneficial for us.
prescription of blank fungus
so in this situation you to understand what medications can be prescribed.
so to combat fungal infection doctors might prescribe antifungal agents and I’m not going to take any names for them but in case of severe infection surgical removal of the tissue might be useful and this is up to our responsible health care workers doctors and nurses the will assist the situation and do whatever is necessary.
so I have huge respect for them I hope you enjoyed this video and this video was informative for you to understand the concept if you liked this don’t forget to share and subscribe to Instagram or telegram account.